This ancient stone is regarded as one of London’s greatest relics yet its history and purpose are still shrouded in mystery. It is widely believed to be the point from which the Romans measured all routes across Britain; it has associations with the Druids and is featured in works by Shakespeare, William Blake and Charles Dickens. However, it is probably best known for the myth that is attached to it. "So long as the stone of Brutus is safe, so long shall London flourish," says the proverb. Brutus (the Trojan) was the legendary founder of London and the stone is thought to be part of an altar built by him.
Where? The stone is caged in a wall at foot level at 111 Cannon Street EC4, opposite Cannon Street station. It can be viewed 24 hours-a-day. Find the London Stone on a Google map.
Founded in 1123, St Bartholomew’s is one of London’s oldest hospitals. On the Grand Staircase in its North Wing are two little-seen – but large and impressive – paintings by William Hogarth. Born in the City, Hogarth gave his services free-of-charge to the hospital. While this may have been out of a sense of philanthropy, it was also because the job allowed him to attempt a picture in the grand historical style (something he had not done previously and was rarely to attempt again). Completed between 1734 and 1737, the paintings depict two biblical stories relating to the care of the sick and injured – they are The Good Samaritan and Christ at the Pool of Bethesda. It is widely believed that Hogarth used patients from the hospital as his models and, while there is no documented evidence to confirm this, the realism of the portraits suggests it is likely.
Where? The painting can be glimpsed from a doorway at the back of the St Bartholomew's Hospital Museum; the only way to get a closer look is to take the St Bart's Hospital Tour which takes place at 2pm every Friday. Find it on a Google map.
Until comparatively recent boundary changes, the City had no roads – that is to say that none of its highways or byways use the word “road” within their names. Today there is one (Goswell Road) which runs along a very small part of the City’s boundary line. All other thoroughfares in the City use "street", "lane", "gate", "wall" or some other word. The reason is thought by some to be that – as the old definition of a road was “a way between places” and the City is at the heart of the capital (and thus our nation) – it is not "between" anywhere but the at the start or end of any journey.
Walking past this building at 13 Philpot Lane, EC3, one would never notice the two small mice built into the facia, fighting over a piece of cheese. The fable goes that, when the building was being constructed many years ago, an argument broke out when a workman accused another of eating some of his lunch. During the ensuing argument, one of the men tragically fell to his death. It was later found that in fact mice were the culprits and these two stone rodents nibbling on their cheese were added to the building as a discreet testament to the incident.
Where? 13 Philpot Lane, EC3. Find it on a Google map.
The Harold Samuel collection, comprising 84 17th-century Dutch and Flemish paintings, has been described as the finest private collection of such works to be formed in Britain over the past century. It includes paintings by such masters as Frans Hals, Nicolaes Maes and Jacob van Ruisdael, acquired by Lord Samuel for his personal pleasure and to hang in his home at Wych Cross. The collection was bequeathed to the City of London in 1987 to be hung permanently in the Lord Mayor's residence, Mansion House.
Tours of Mansion House take place every Tuesday at 2pm (£6 adults, £4 concs) run by the City of London Tourist Guides. Find it on a Google map.
In The Uncommercial Traveller, Charles Dickens nicknames the churchyard of St Olave Saint Ghastly Grim: “It is a small churchyard, with a ferocious strong spiked iron gate, like a jail. This gate is ornamented with skulls and cross-bones, larger than life, wrought in stone; but it likewise came into the mind of Saint Ghastly Grim, that to stick iron spikes a-top of the stone skulls, as though they were impaled, would be a pleasant device. Therefore the skulls grin aloft horribly, thrust through and through with iron spears.” The stone skulls are still there, grinning down on passers-by and sending a shiver down the spines of those unfortunate souls who – walking this quiet City street at night – chance upon them for the first time.
Where? St Olave, Hart Street EC3R 7NB. Find it on a Google map.
The magnificent tiered spire of St Bride’s church on Bride Lane is thought to be the inspiration behind the modern-day wedding cake. The story goes that in the early part of the 19th century, a pastry chef from Fleet Street – one Mr Rich – copied Wren’s unusual design when creating a cake for his daughter’s wedding. The fact that it is the church of St Bride is mere coincidence, it being named after St Bride of Kildare – a sixth-century saint.
Where? St Bride's, Fleet Street EC4Y 8AU. Find it on a Google map.
“Oranges and lemons...” begins the well-known English nursery rhyme. But did you know that the bells of all of the six churches it features are in, or close to, the City? They are popularly believed to be bells of St Clements, St Martins, Old Bailey, Shoreditch, Stepney and St Mary-le-Bow, which is famous for many reasons. In 1392, Richard (Dick) Whittington heard them call him back to London to become Lord Mayor; to be born within the sound of them was the sign of a true Londoner or Cockney; and, during the Second World War, the BBC's World Service broadcast a recording of them as a symbol of hope to the free people of Europe.
Opened in 1973, the current London Bridge replaced one that was – quite literally – “falling down”, sinking under the weight of an ever-increasing flow of traffic. The previous bridge (built in 1831), was sold to Robert McCulloch, Chairman of the McCulloch Oil Corporation. As it was dismantled, each stone was numbered; they were then shipped to California, before being taken by road to Lake Havasu City, Arizona. Reconstruction of the bridge began there in 1968 when the Lord Mayor of City of London laid the cornerstone. In 1971, building was complete. Today, the old London Bridge is Arizona’s second-biggest tourist attraction after the Grand Canyon.
An old-style London pub with tiny rooms, oak beams, narrow passageways and that wonderful gloomy charm. Rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666, its vaulted cellars are thought to have been part of the 13th-century Carmelite monastery that stood there. It is said that regulars included literary giants Oliver Goldsmith, Mark Twain and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and it is famously mentioned in Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities. Perhaps though, it is best known for its resident parrot, Polly. There seem to be two stories connected to her – one, that she swore a lot (perhaps mimicking bawdy customers) and that crowds flocked to hear her profanities; two, that on Armistice night in 1918, she imitated the popping of champagne corks some 400 times. Polly died in 1926 and her obituary appeared in hundreds of newspapers (probably due to the number of journalists that were customers, the pub being next to Fleet Street). Polly still inhabits the pub, stuffed and in a glass case.
Where? Wine Office Court at 145 Fleet Street EC4A 2BU. Find it on a Google map.